Painful Menstrual Periods ( Dysmenorrhea )

Painful Menstrual Periods ( Dysmenorrhea )

What is Dysmenorrhea?

Dysmenorrhea is a cramping type of pain during menses.

Types of dysmenorrhea :

It can be of two types. Primary or Secondary

Primary dysmenorrhea: This is mainly because of the excessive or imbalanced amount of prostanoids secreted from the endometrium (uterine lining) during menstruation. The prostanoids result in increased uterine contractions in a dysrhythmic pattern. Uterine hypercontractility, decreased uterine blood flow and increased peripheral nerve hypersensitivity contribute to pain.

Secondary dysmenorrhea: This is the cyclic menstrual pain that occurs in association with underlying pelvic pathology.

Causes: endometriosis


subacute endometritis

pelvic inflammatory disease

ovarian cysts

congenital uterine or vaginal malformation 

Intrauterine devices


To diagnose the cause of pain, the following tests are done:

– Complete blood count & ESR to rule out infection

– Urine microscopy to rule out urinary tract infection

-Cervical culture

– Abdominal or transvaginal ultrasound




– Hot fomentation: applying heat to the lower abdomen and back

-weight loss

– doing exercises daily for 45 mins at least 5 days a week

-Avoid stress

– Adequate sleep

-NSAIDS & Hormonal pills

– For secondary dysmenorrhea, the underlying cause needs to be identified and treated

Consult gynaecologist online